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Migratory Birds Convention Act, 1994 (S.C. 1994, c. 22)

Act current to 2022-09-22 and last amended on 2017-12-12. Previous Versions

Administration (continued)

Marginal note:Intervention by game officer

  •  (1) If a person to whom an order is directed fails to take any measures specified in the order, a game officer may take the measures or cause them to be taken.

  • Marginal note:Access to property

    (2) A game officer or other person authorized or required by a game officer to take measures under subsection (1) may enter and have access to any place or property and may do any reasonable thing that may be necessary in the circumstances.

  • Marginal note:Personal liability

    (3) Any person, other than a person described in subsection 11.21(2), who provides assistance or advice in taking the measures specified in an order or who takes any measures authorized or required by a game officer under subsection (1) is not personally liable either civilly or criminally in respect of any act or omission in the course of providing assistance or advice or taking any measures under that subsection unless it is established that the person acted in bad faith.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 100

Marginal note:Recovery of reasonable costs and expenses by Her Majesty

  •  (1) Her Majesty in right of Canada may recover the costs and expenses of and incidental to any measures taken under subsection 11.25(1) from

    • (a) any person referred to in paragraph 11.21(2)(a); or

    • (b) any person referred to in paragraph 11.21(2)(b) to the extent of the person’s negligence in causing or contributing to the alleged contravention.

  • Marginal note:Costs must have been reasonably incurred

    (2) The costs and expenses may only be recovered to the extent that they can be established to have been reasonably incurred in the circumstances.

  • Marginal note:Liability

    (3) The persons referred to in subsection (1) are jointly and severally, or solidarily, liable for the costs and expenses referred to in that subsection.

  • Marginal note:Limitation

    (4) A person referred to in paragraph 11.21(2)(b) may not be held liable under subsection (3) to an extent greater than the extent of their negligence in causing or contributing to the alleged contravention.

  • Marginal note:Procedure

    (5) A claim under this section may be sued for and recovered by Her Majesty in right of Canada with costs in proceedings brought or taken in the name of Her Majesty in right of Canada in any court of competent jurisdiction.

  • Marginal note:Recourse or indemnity

    (6) This section does not limit or restrict any right of recourse or indemnity that a person may have against any other person.

  • Marginal note:Limitation period

    (7) If events giving rise to a claim under this section occur, no proceedings in respect of the claim may be instituted more than five years after the day on which the events occur or become evident to the Minister, whichever is later.

  • Marginal note:Minister’s certificate

    (8) A document purporting to have been issued by the Minister certifying the day on which the events giving rise to a claim under this section came to the knowledge of the Minister shall be received in evidence and, in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, the document is to be considered as proof of that fact without proof of the signature or of the official character of the person appearing to have signed the document and without further proof.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 100

Marginal note:Request for review

  •  (1) Any person to whom an order is directed may, by notice in writing given to the Chief Review Officer within 30 days after the day on which the person receives a copy of the written order or after the oral order is given, make a request to the Chief Review Officer for a review of the order.

  • Marginal note:Extension of period for request

    (2) The Chief Review Officer may extend the period within which a request for a review may be made if, in his or her opinion, it is in the public interest to do so.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 100

Marginal note:Variation or cancellation of order

  •  (1) At any time before a notice requesting a review of an order is received by the Chief Review Officer, the game officer may, after giving reasonable notice,

    • (a) amend or suspend a term or condition of the order, or add a term or condition to, or delete a term or condition from, the order;

    • (b) cancel the order;

    • (c) correct a clerical error in the order; or

    • (d) extend the duration of the order for a period of not more than 180 days less the number of days that have passed since the day on which the order was received by the person who is subject to it.

  • Marginal note:Notice of intent

    (2) Except in exigent circumstances, a game officer shall, whenever practicable, before exercising a power under paragraph (1)(a) or (d),

    • (a) provide every person who will be subject to the order with an oral or written notice of the officer’s intention to exercise the power; and

    • (b) allow a reasonable opportunity in the circumstances for the person to make oral representations.

  • Marginal note:Contents of notice of intent

    (3) The notice of intent to exercise a power under paragraph (1)(a) must include

    • (a) a statement of the purpose of the notice;

    • (b) a reference to the statutory authority under which the power is to be exercised; and

    • (c) a statement that the party notified may make oral representations to the game officer within the period stated in the notice.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 100

Marginal note:Regulations

 The Minister may make regulations

  • (a) prescribing the form of reporting to game officers under subparagraph 11.21(3)(f)(ii) and specifying the information required to be contained in or to accompany the report; and

  • (b) of either particular or general application, respecting representations made to game officers under paragraph 11.23(1)(b) or 11.28(2)(b).

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 100

Marginal note:Review

 Sections 257 to 271 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 apply, with any modifications that the circumstances require, to a review requested of any order.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 100

Regulations

Marginal note:Regulations

  •  (1) The Governor in Council may make any regulations that the Governor in Council considers necessary to carry out the purposes and provisions of this Act and the Convention, including regulations

    • (a) providing for the periods during which, and the areas in which,

      • (i) migratory birds may be killed, captured or taken,

      • (ii) nests may be damaged, destroyed, removed or disturbed, or

      • (iii) migratory birds or nests may be bought, sold, exchanged, given or made the subject of a commercial transaction;

    • (b) for limiting the number of migratory birds that a person may kill, capture or take in any period when doing so is permitted by the regulations, and providing for the manner in which those birds may then be killed, captured or taken and the equipment that may be used;

    • (c) respecting the possession of migratory birds and nests that have been killed, captured, taken or removed in accordance with the regulations;

    • (d) for granting permits to kill, capture, take, buy, sell, exchange, give or possess migratory birds, or to make migratory birds the subject of a commercial transaction;

    • (e) for granting permits to remove or eliminate migratory birds or nests where it is necessary to do so to avoid injury to agricultural interests or in any other circumstances set out in the regulations;

    • (f) respecting the issuance, renewal, revocation and suspension of permits;

    • (g) for regulating the shipment or transportation of migratory birds from one province to another province or country and providing for the imposition of conditions governing international traffic in migratory birds;

    • (h) for prohibiting the killing, capturing, injuring, taking or disturbing of migratory birds or the damaging, destroying, removing or disturbing of nests;

    • (h.1) respecting the conditions and circumstances under which migratory birds may be killed, captured, injured, taken or disturbed, or nests may be damaged, destroyed, removed or disturbed;

    • (i) prescribing protection areas for migratory birds and nests, and for the control and management of those areas;

    • (i.1) respecting documents, records and data that any person or vessel or class of persons or vessels is required to keep or provide under this Act;

    • (i.2) excluding from the application of any provision of this Act or the regulations a military vessel, a naval auxiliary vessel or a vessel that is owned or operated by a state while it is being used only on government non-commercial service;

    • (j) for charging fees for permits, leases, stamps or other authorizing documents required to carry on any activity under this Act or the regulations, and for determining the amount of the fees and the terms and conditions under which they are to be paid;

    • (j.1) defining, for the purposes of this Act, any word or expression that is used in this Act and is not defined;

    • (k) authorizing the Minister to vary or suspend the application of any regulation made under this Act if the Minister considers it necessary to do so for the conservation of migratory birds; and

    • (l) designating provisions of the regulations for the purposes of paragraphs 13(1)(c) and 13.03(1)(b).

  • Marginal note:Amendments to Convention

    (2) The Minister shall, by order, amend the schedule to incorporate any amendment to the Convention as soon as is practicable after the amendment takes effect, and table any amendment in both Houses of Parliament within fifteen sitting days after the order is made.

  • Marginal note:Debate in House of Commons

    (3) Any amendment tabled in both Houses of Parliament pursuant to subsection (2) shall be debated in the House of Commons within twenty sitting days after being tabled in both Houses.

  • 1994, c. 22, s. 12
  • 2001, c. 34, s. 53(E)
  • 2005, c. 23, s. 8
  • 2009, c. 14, s. 101

Offences and Punishment

Marginal note:Offence — persons

  •  (1) Every person commits an offence who

    • (a) contravenes section 5, subsection 5.1(1) or (2), paragraph 5.2(a), (c) or (d), subsection 5.3(1), 8.1(6), or 11.24(1);

    • (b) knowingly contravenes paragraph 5.2(b);

    • (c) contravenes any provision of the regulations designated by regulations made under paragraph 12(1)(l);

    • (d) contravenes an order made under subsection 8.1(1) or (2); or

    • (e) contravenes an order made by a court under this Act.

  • Marginal note:Penalty — individuals

    (2) Every individual who commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $15,000 and not more than $1,000,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than three years, or to both, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $30,000 and not more than $2,000,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than three years, or to both; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $5,000 and not more than $300,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than six months, or to both, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $10,000 and not more than $600,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than six months, or to both.

  • Marginal note:Penalty — other persons

    (3) Every person, other than an individual or a corporation referred to in subsection (4), that commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $500,000 and not more than $6,000,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $1,000,000 and not more than $12,000,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $100,000 and not more than $4,000,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $200,000 and not more than $8,000,000.

  • Marginal note:Penalty — small revenue corporations

    (4) Every corporation that commits an offence under subsection (1) and that the court determines under section 13.02 to be a small revenue corporation is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $75,000 and not more than $4,000,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $150,000 and not more than $8,000,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not less than $25,000 and not more than $2,000,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not less than $50,000 and not more than $4,000,000.

  • 1994, c. 22, s. 13
  • 2005, c. 23, s. 9
  • 2009, c. 14, s. 102

Marginal note:Offence — persons

  •  (1) Every person commits an offence who

    • (a) contravenes any provision of this Act or the regulations, other than a provision the contravention of which is an offence under subsection 13(1);

    • (b) negligently contravenes paragraph 5.2(b); or

    • (c) contravenes an order or direction made under this Act, other than an order the contravention of which is an offence under subsection 13(1).

  • Marginal note:Penalty — individuals

    (2) Every individual who commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $100,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $200,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $25,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $50,000.

  • Marginal note:Penalty — other persons

    (3) Every person, other than an individual or a corporation referred to in subsection (4), that commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $500,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $1,000,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $250,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $500,000.

  • Marginal note:Penalty — small revenue corporations

    (4) Every corporation that commits an offence under subsection (1) and that the court determines under section 13.02 to be a small revenue corporation is liable,

    • (a) on conviction on indictment,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $250,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $500,000; or

    • (b) on summary conviction,

      • (i) for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $50,000, and

      • (ii) for a second or subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $100,000.

  • 2009, c. 14, s. 102
 
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